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By Jandial, Rahul; Neman, Josh; Snyder, Evan Y.; Toy, Eugene C

ISBN-10: 007179025X

ISBN-13: 9780071790253

ISBN-10: 0071790268

ISBN-13: 9780071790260

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Na+ is critical for the action potential: if the extracellular concentration of Na+ falls the amplitude of the action potential decreases. indd 35 7/30/14 7:33 PM 36 CASE FILES: Neuroscience supernormal stimuli may result in the generation of another action potential. This period is the relative refractory period. As the K+ channels close, the membrane slowly approaches its resting membrane potential. Typically, repolarization of the cell by closing K+ channels results in an overshoot of resting membrane potential, creating a refractory period where the membrane potential equalizes to resting state.

Na+, K+, Cl− cotransporter (NKCC) C. Ca2+ ATPase D. 1 C. A decreased extracellular K+ concentration will result in hyperpolarization of the nerve. Because potassium is the major intracellular cation in nerves, major alterations in the body’s store of potassium can have a significant effect on the resting membrane potential of the nerve and thus its ability to propagate electrical signals. From the Nernst equation, we can easily see that decreasing the extracellular K+ concentration will result in a larger negative value for the resting membrane potential for potassium.

Opening of voltage-gated potassium channels C. Slow closing of voltage-gated potassium channels D. 1 A. Lidocaine binds to inactivated sodium channels, preventing the rapid depolarization needed for the initiation of the action potential. The opening of the voltage-gated sodium channels is responsible for the rapid upstroke of the action potential. Slower acting voltage-sensitive potassium channels are responsible for the delayed rectifier current, which, in combination with the closing of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, is responsible for repolarizing the axon.

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Case files neuroscience by Jandial, Rahul; Neman, Josh; Snyder, Evan Y.; Toy, Eugene C

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