Buddhist Teaching in India - download pdf or read online
By Johannes Bronkhorst
The earliest documents we now have this present day of what the Buddha acknowledged have been written down numerous centuries after his demise, and the physique of teachings attributed to him persevered to conform in India for hundreds of years later on throughout a moving cultural and political panorama. As one culture inside a various non secular milieu that integrated even the Greek kingdoms of northwestern India, Buddhism had many possibilities to either impact and be inspired via competing faculties of notion. Even inside Buddhism, a proliferation of interpretive traditions produced a dynamic highbrow weather. Johannes Bronkhorst right here tracks the improvement of Buddhist teachings either in the better Indian context and between Buddhism's many colleges, laying off mild at the assets and trajectory of such rules as dharma conception, vacancy, the bodhisattva perfect, buddha nature, formal good judgment, and idealism. In those pages, we find the roots of the doctrinal debates that experience lively the Buddhist culture up until eventually the current day.
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He answers the same questions in exactly the same words. He rejects, however, the conclusion that he is an arhat, one whose taints are destroyed. He explains this with the help of a simile. Just as when a man who is hot and thirsty finds a well in the wilderness, he sees the well and knows that it contains water, but alas, he cannot reach and touch the water. In the same way he, Närada, even though he knows that the cessation of becoming is nirvana, is no arhat, and his taints have not been destroyed.
Apränaka dhyâna). This meditation is described in all its horrifying particulars, and it leads to a situation where some gods believe that the bodhisattva is dead. After this meditation without breathing, the bodhisattva decides to fast, and in fasting, too, he goes to extremes. ) After all these trials, he reaches the following conclusion: Whatever recluses and brahmans in the past have experienced painful, racking, piercing sensations due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this.
71 It follows that the discrepancy mentioned above, which was noticed by the Buddhists themselves, need not be ascribed to the teaching of the historical Buddha. It is far more likely that, contrary to what happened later, no explicitly formulated liberating knowledge was part of the original teaching. This does not exclude that some kind of liberating knowledge may have played a role in Buddhism from the beginning. 1 do not subscribe to the point of view of Schneider (1967: 253-54; 1980: 69-70), who in some publications ascribes to the Buddha the teaching that one has to abstain from accumulating karma in order to avoid rebirth.
Buddhist Teaching in India by Johannes Bronkhorst