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By William Harry Mitchell, Leonard Arthur Sawyer

Tом: третий

Британские стандартные суда, построенные во время Первой мировой войны

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The speed of sound in sea water increases with increasing pressure, temperature, and salinity (and vice versa). Temperature (°C) 0° 10° 1490 500 500 where c is the speed of sound in metres per second, T is the temperature in °C, S is the salinity in PSU, and D is the depth in metres. Temperature/salinity/density profiles are important measurements for sensor operations in many underwater environments, and they have a dramatic effect on the transmission of sound in the ocean. A change in overall water density over short range due to any of these three variables (or in combination) is termed a pycnocline.

5–30 PSU) as it blends within rivers and estuaries, then homogenizes with the ocean water (75% of the ocean’s waters have between 33 and 34 PSU of dissolved salts) as the cycle ends, then renews with evaporation. Just as a layer of rapid change in temperature (the thermocline) traps sound and other energy, so does an area of rapid change in salinity, known as a halocline. g. rip tides at river estuaries). As the salinity of water increases, the freezing point decreases. As an anecdote to salinity, there are brine pools under the Antarctic ice amidst the glaciers in the many lakes of Antarctica’s McMurdo Dry Valleys.

33). On a vertical profile, the tide may interact with the general flow pattern from a river or estuary; the warm fresh water may flow from a river on top of the cold salt water (a freshet, as mentioned above) as the salt water creeps for a distance up the river. According to Van Dorn (1993), fresh water has been reported over 300 miles at sea off the Amazon. If a brackish water estuary is the operating area, problems to be faced will include variations in water density, water flow vector/speed, and acoustic/turbidity properties.

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British Standard Ships of World War I by William Harry Mitchell, Leonard Arthur Sawyer

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