Download PDF by Peter Strehl: Beam instrumentation and diagnostics
By Peter Strehl
This treatise covers all features of the layout and the day-by-day operations of a beam diagnostic procedure for a wide particle accelerator. a really interdisciplinary box, it contains contributions from physicists, electric and mechanical engineers and computing device specialists alike for you to fulfill the ever-increasing calls for for beam parameter variability for an enormous diversity of operation modi and particles.The writer attracts upon forty years of analysis and paintings, so much of them spent because the head of the beam diagnostics team at GSI. He has illustrated the extra theoretical facets with many real-life examples that might offer beam instrumentation designers with principles and instruments for his or her paintings.
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Extra resources for Beam instrumentation and diagnostics
Therefore, the ratio of the two eﬀects depends on the stopping material and on the relativistic region given by [42, 45, 48] (W + mc2 ) Z (dW/dx)rad ≈ . 21) (dW/dx)coll 1600 mc2 Thus, radiation loss predominates at higher energies. 22) ≈ 800 [MeV] . 15 gives Wc dependent on the atomic number. Evidently, this implies using a low Z material to stop high energy electrons with a Faraday cup. Nevertheless, the loss of charges by pair production and Compton scattering from the produced photons has to be prevented.
As a ﬁrst consequence, the scheme of Fig. 32 has been improved by adding a second core modulated opposite to the modulation, of the ﬁrst one. With this modiﬁcation, the scheme can be further extended to a zero detector, as shown in Fig. 34. Referring to Fig. 33, the resulting analog signal as well as the expected Fourier spectrum are shown in Fig. 35. From the working principle of the dc-transformer, based on a strong modulation of the magnetic material and the shift of the hysteresis curve by the external beam, it becomes clear that the Barkhausen noise produced by walljumps of magnetic regions is a limiting factor with respect to achievable performance.
The use of calorimetry has been discussed by a number of authors [54–59]. Assuming that the energy and mass of the energetic neutral particles are known, particle ﬂow can be determined by measuring the change in temperature of a thermally isolated beam stopper, as shown schematically in Fig. 20. Measuring the change in temperature in a speciﬁc time interval, the beam intensity can be determined from the relations, N m 2 dT dT dQ = v = m cp (T ) = ρ V cp (T ) ∆t ∆t 2 ∆t ∆t T2 N 1 ρV m 2 = cp (T ) dT, Wsp = v .
Beam instrumentation and diagnostics by Peter Strehl