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By F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)
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Whereas winter is passed mainly in the adult stage, imaginal longevity, from spring to autumn, of the first to fourth generations, is rather short, and rarely surpasses four to six weeks. The armoured-scale ladybird Chilocorus bipustulatus, has 4-5 successive annual generations 18 . The 1-2 summer-generations which follow the spring maximum have a much reduced egg-number and undergo a rather excessive mortality. The adults of 2-3 generations may survive the winter, but it is mainly those ofthe last pre-hibernal generation which do so.
II THE LIFE-HISTORY AND ITS ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION TO-DAY One of the American pioneers in ecology once said that the lifehistory of the individual species will always remain the basis of animal ecology. This statement is no doubt true. The question, however, as to what should be understood by life-history has recently undergone many changes. It is not any longer restricted to the description of stages and of parasites and predators. The abundance of recent methodological achievements is large.
It will be higher in the favourable zone, and highest where favourable and optimal conditions exist for some consecutive months. In summing up the monthly values of the bonitation-index, we get the climatic local annual bonitation-value. A series of additional corrections may be made to improve this bonitation (and others may be worked out locally): (1) Rainfall of more than 125 mm combined with low temperatures (below 15 o C) is detrimental, especially to the pupae in the soil and to the adult flies.
Animal Ecology To-Day by F. S. Bodenheimer (auth.)