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By Adam Prus
This up to date textual content presents an introductory evaluate of the anxious process activities and behavioral results of the main periods of psychoactive medicinal drugs, utilizing pedagogy distinctive between pharmacology texts to make the subject approachable.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior
Animals lack the capacity to provide informed consent (Swerdlow, 2000). However, some human participants also lack the capacity to provide informed consent. For example, young children lack the capacity to understand what may happen during a medical study. Or an adult may be mentally incapable of providing informed consent. In these cases, informed consent is left to a legal guardian. The informed consent principle is a relatively modern one, and there is a long history of human experimentation conducted either against the will of Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning.
Experimental validity addresses the logical design of effective quality experimental studies. 4). Internal validity refers to the control of variables with potential to influence changes in a dependent variable. Ideal experiments arrange conditions so that only changes to the independent variable will cause changes to the dependent variable. Without appropriately arranging conditions, other variables, referred to as confound variables, can cause changes to the dependent variable. For example, a study designed to test new drugs for depression may involve patients checking in with a clinic physician every morning.
To characterize the spectrum of a drug’s pharmacological effects, researchers must measure the drug’s objective and subjective effects. Objective effects are pharmacological effects that can be directly observed by others. In other words, a researcher can independently measure the drug’s effects. For example, psychostimulant drugs increase heart rate. 4). Subjective effects are pharmacological effects that cannot be directly observed by others. In other words, we cannot observe or measure another’s drug experience.
An Introduction to Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior by Adam Prus