Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)'s Agriculture in the GATT PDF
By Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)
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Additional resources for Agriculture in the GATT
It was open-ended in that it applied not only to existing programmes but also to any that might subsequently be introduced. The prior approval of the CONTRACTING PARTIES for new restrictions was not required. Unlike the agricultural waivers later granted to West Germany and Belgium, the US waiver was not limited in time. There was no legal obligation to adopt policy measures that would obviate the need for import fees and quotas. US negotiators successfully resisted all attempts by the working party that considered the request to circumscribe the waiver.
Agricultural production and export subsidies and quantitative restrictions were to be permiued for an unknown future period, subject only to weak multilateral surveillance and restraints. Conversely, little enthusiasm had been shown in the negotiations on the GATT and the ITO Charter for the intergovernmental commodity agreements which Lo some exporters of agricultural products were the preferred means of attaining shortrun stability and long-term growth in their export earnings. On every side, the low-cost exporters were confronted by the trade effects of the pervasive national agricultural policies of importing and exporting countries affiuent enough to protect and subsidize their agricultural sectors.
It contained on ly some of the trade rules of the commercial policy chapter of the Havana Charter. Though its workload was growing , it was still serviced by a small Secretariat temporarily on Joan from the Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization. There were signs that the traditional item-by-item method of bargaining on tariff reductions had run its course. There was deep discontent with the balance of benefits provided by the Agreement. In particular, low-income countries were demanding that multilateral commercial policy be used to accelerate their economic development, while the medium-sized and smaller exporters of agricultural products were demanding that their comparative advantage be released by measures that would improve their access to the food importers' markets, and lower the level of trade-distorting agricultural subsidies.
Agriculture in the GATT by Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)