A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures NCRP by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements PDF
By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
The name of this e-book is A instruction manual of Radioactivity Measurements tactics: With Nuclear facts for a few Biologically very important Radionuclides : options of the nationwide Council on Radiation defense and Measurements and it was once written via nationwide Council on Radiation security and Measurements, nationwide Committee on Radiation safeguard and Measurements (U.S.). This version of A guide of Radioactivity Measurements tactics: With Nuclear facts for a few Biologically vital Radionuclides : concepts of the nationwide Council on Radiation defense and Measurements is in a publication layout. This books post date is January 1, 1978. It was once released through NCRP and has 506 pages within the booklet. the ten digit ISBN is 0913392413 and the thirteen digit ISBN is 9780913392416
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Extra info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures NCRP Reports 58
For very thin, or "mass-less," sources of alpha or beta particles of not too low an energy, practically 100-percent detection efficiency can be achieved in the case of 47r gas proportional counters. 8) are also forms of 4 r counting in which the total detection efficiency closely approaches 100 percent. One of the oldest methods of direct standardization of activity is that of defined-solid-angle counting where the defined solid angle is 17r steradians or less. It has been used for measuring alpha-particle, beta-particle, and photon activities, but is now considered unsuitable 18 / INTRODUCTION for direct beta-particle standardization, because of the large errors introduced by scattering.
After an ionizing event, the sheath of positive ions along the counter wire effectively lowers the wire potential and makes the counter inoperative until the ions have drifted to the cathode. The inoperative time is known as the dead time, and in the Geiger-Miillercounter dead times are long, ranging from 10 to 500 ps. Thus, this type of counter does not allow of such high counting rates as does the proportional counter. It is also inferior because the slopes of the Geiger-Mullercounter plateau are steeper than those of proportional counters, values of less than 1 percent variation in counting rate per hundred volts being uncommon unless an artificial dead time is used to reduce spurious counts.
Figure 8 shows a typical pulse shape. A delay, of time t,, elapses before the primary electrons reach the multiplication region. 2 PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS / 27 Fig. 8. Voltage pulse from proportional counter. As described in the text, curve A represents the undifferentiated and curve B the differentiated responses. ) &. of the order of 1 ps. This delay time, which is variable, should not be overlooked when coincidence experiments are carried out. Initially the pulse rises very fast (curve A), first as a result of the movement of the electrons (tl to tz),then of the positive ions traveling in the strong field near the wire.
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures NCRP Reports 58 by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements